PainExam Blog

A Place for Board Certified and Board Eligible Pain Management Anesthesiologists to share concerns and important topics relevant to the Practice of Pain.



Diuretics Classification 1.       High efficacy diuretics (inhibitor of Na+-K+-2Cl-  cotransport) Sulphamoyl derivatives: Furosemide, bumetanide, torasemide 2.       Medium efficacy diuretics (inhibitors of Na+-Cl-  symport)             Benzothiadiazines (thiazides)                      ...
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Butyrophenones Butyrophenones They are typical antipsychotics. The three butyrophenones are: HaloperidolTrifluperidolPenfluridol Pharmacological actions 1. Effect on CNS- Effects differ in normal and psychotic individuals.They have potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking property and produce extrapyramidal motor side effects. They are also...
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Antiepileptics Classification BarbituratePhenobarbitoneDeoxybarbituratePrimidoneHydantoinPhenytoin FosphenytoinIminostilbeneCarbamazepineOxcarbazepineSuccinimideEthosuximideAliphatic carboxylic acidValproic acid (sodium valproate)DivalproexBenzodiazepinesClonazepam Diazepam Lorazepam ClobazamPhenyltriazineLamotrigineCyclic GABA analogueGabapentin PregabalinNewer drugsTopiramate Zonisamide Levetiracetam Vigabatrin Tiagabine Lacosamide Phenobarbitone Enhancement of GABAA receptor medited synaptic inhibition appears to be most important mechanismHigher anticonvulsant: hypnotic ratio of phenobarbitone is...
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Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol)

Pharmacological action 1.       Local actions Mild rubifacient and counterirritant when rubbed on the skinBy evaporation it produces coolingApplied on delicate skin (scrotum) and mucous membrane, it produces irritation and burning sensationInjected sc, it causes intense pain, inflammation and necrosis followed...
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Adrenoceptor blockers

Adrenoceptor blockers α-Adrenergic blockers: alpha 1 selective agent (eg, prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin) are moderately effective antihypertensive drugs.They reduce vascular resistance and venous return.The nonselective α blockers (phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine) are of no value in chronic hypertension because of excessive tachycardia.They do,...
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